# A single loop is not enough. A collection of hello world control structures

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As the post on “hello world” functions has been quite appreciated by the R community, here follows the second round of functions for wannabe R programmer.

```# If else statement:
# See the code syntax below for if else statement
x=10
if(x>1){
print(“x is greater than 1”)
}else{
print(“x is less than 1”)
}

# See the code below for nested if else statement

x=10
if(x>1 & x<7){
print(“x is between 1 and 7”)} else if(x>8 & x< 15){
print(“x is between 8 and 15”)
}

# For loops:
# Below code shows for loop implementation
x = c(1,2,3,4,5)
for(i in 1:5){
print(x[i])
}

# While loop :
# Below code shows while loop in R
x = 2.987
while(x <= 4.987) {
x = x + 0.987
print(c(x,x-2,x-1))
}

# Repeat Loop:
# The repeat loop is an infinite loop and used in association with a break statement.

# Below code shows repeat loop:
a = 1
repeat{
print(a)
a = a+1
if (a > 4) {
break
}
}

# Break statement:
# A break statement is used in a loop to stop the iterations and flow the control outside of the loop.

#Below code shows break statement:
x = 1:10
for (i in x){
if (i == 6){
break
}
print(i)
}

# Next statement:
# Next statement enables to skip the current iteration of a loop without terminating it.

#Below code shows next statement
x = 1: 4
for (i in x) {
if (i == 2){
next
}
print(i)
}

# function

words = c(“R”, “datascience”, “machinelearning”,”algorithms”,”AI”)
words.names = function(x) {
for(name in x){
print(name)
}
}

words.names(words) # Calling the function

# extract the elements above the main diagonal of a (square) matrix
# example of a correlation matrix

cor_matrix <- matrix(c(1, -0.25, 0.89, -0.25, 1, -0.54, 0.89, -0.54, 1), 3,3)
rownames(cor_matrix) <- c(“A”,”B”,”C”)
colnames(cor_matrix) <- c(“A”,”B”,”C”)
cor_matrix

rho <- list()
name <- colnames(cor_matrix)
var1 <- list()
var2 <- list()
for (i in 1:ncol(cor_matrix)){
for (j in 1:ncol(cor_matrix)){
if (i != j & i<j){
rho <- c(rho,cor_matrix[i,j])
var1 <- c(var1, name[i])
var2 <- c(var2, name[j])
}
}
}

d <- data.frame(var1=as.character(var1), var2=as.character(var2), rho=as.numeric(rho))
d

var1 var2 rho
1 A B -0.25
2 A C 0.89
3 B C -0.54

```

As programming is the best way to learn and think, have fun programming awesome functions!

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